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And God said, "Let there be light," and there was light.God saw that the light was good, and he separated the light from the darkness.--from Bible

Part one: Macro-analysis

Energy consumption and global warming,the global greenhouse effect and related emissions,this century, the average global temperature may increase of 1.1-6.4 degrees Celsius 18 and the sea levels will rise 18-59 centimeters.energy generated by human activities is carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases may lead to global’s temperatures rising. the global greenhouse gas emissions had increased 70% from 1970 to 2004 , in the earth's atmosphere, accumulation of carbon dioxide had overed the past 6.5 million years in the natural level, if the temperature rise1.5 degrees Celsius, about 20% to 30% of the global animals and plants will face extinction; if the temperature rise 3.5 degrees Celsius, 40% to 70% of the species will been face extinction.

Part two: Status and the expected global energy consumption:

The global population: in the next 50 years, the population will increase to11 billion from the current 6 billion. the global energy consumption: the oil will be increased 16.2 billion from 10.24 billion of 2001 on 2025,the world energy consumption in 2001-2025 years will increased by 54%.the global power consumption: it is estimated that the global power consumption will be  Double than 2002.global energy consumption of the three centers: North America, Europe and Asia Pacific, these three energy centers are consuming 30% of the world's energy, lighting accounts for 20% of the total energy consumption, the 80% of lighting was consumed by industrial, commercial and other professional users. Therefore, to solve the energy consumption for lighting professional users is the focus of hisemicon


Traditional program of environmental hazards:

Mercury content: a 400 w high-pressure mercury lamp contains about 100 milligrams of mercury. 10 high-pressure mercury lamps have 1 gram of mercury. And, the mercury vapor was existed in the form.

Mercury poisoning (mercury poisoning) to more common chronic poisoning. Mainly it was happened in the production of long-term inhalation of mercury vapor or mercury compounds dust. The main symptoms are neuropsychiatric abnormalities, gingivitis, tremor. Large doses of mercury vapor were been inhalation or ingestion of mercury compounds, it will be acute poisoning. Skin damage or ulceration parts coated with mercury preparations also can cause poisoning. Production of mercury poisoning will happen in mining, smelting amalgam, gold, silver extraction, vacuum mercury lamp, thermometer, atomic reactor coolant and anti-radiation materials and other production workers.

Minamata disease is a nuisance disease, the reason is mercury poisoning. Around 1956 it was happened in Minamata, Kumamoto Prefecture, the name was given after confirmation of nuisance disease, in the short while, a new pollution disease was discovered as Minamata disease in Niigata prefecture. The difference is: the former is called Minamata disease, Kumamoto; the lasteris called the second Minamata disease or Niigata Minamata disease.

The above two Minamata disease, and Itai-itai disease, Yokkaichi asthma patients was been listed as Japan's four major hazards.

Taiwan Ministry of Education, the "national language dictionary” had collected "Minamata disease" . Its interpretation: "it is disease name, because of factory discharges organic mercury concentration levels through the marine life, finally it was accumulated to a certain extent, the human body was ill. The main organ affected cerebral cortex, the main symptoms is tunnel vision, ataxia, tremor, language barriers, and so on.

Minamata disease, organic mercury poisoning is actually divided into acute, sub acute, chronic, potential and fetal sex. Patients’ hand and foot are numbness it is difficulty to walk it is movement disorders, dementia, hearing and speech disorders; the worst is cramps, delirium, and finally died, now it still no effective therapy.
About half severe have death within three months, pregnant women will be inherited the legacy of mercury poisoning to baby.

Caused

In 1932, Nippon Chisso fertilizer (Chisso, the nitrogen) in the Minamata factory produced vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate, the process needs mercury catalysts. Because the factory was discharged waste water plant uncontrolled , these mercury with highly toxic substances was into the sea, it was consumed by aquatic life, and it was converted into methyl mercury chloride (chemical formula CH3HgCl) and diethyl mercury (chemical formula (CH3) 2Hg) and other organic mercury compounds.When humans prey sea creatures, the methyl mercury and organic mercury compounds enter the body through the fish ,it were gastrointestinal absorption, it against the brain and other body parts, it caused bioaccumulation.

Find the cause

In 1950, a large number of fish was swimming in Minamata Bay, and it was fancy netting, ​​dead fish and seabirds body were floated on the sea, Minamata City, the catches had began to decrease. In 1952, Minamata many local cats were unusual phenomenon, walking Britain Britain stumble, or even made enough bolted, the local residents said, "dancing disease", in January 1953 the cat has jumped into the sea and it is crazy suicide, but it was not to took attention,in during one year, This suicide cat is more than 50,000 pieces. Then, dogs, pigs had also occurred in a similar situation crazy. On April 21, 1956, the person had was also occurred same disease, the little girl from Tian Zhongjing village is the first sick child, she was sent to Chisso Corporation (Chisso Minamata Chemical Company, "Chisso" refers to the nitrogen ) Hospital, rapid deterioration of condition, after one month she was blind, generalized convulsions, and soon died. Her two-year-old sister were also suffering the same symptoms, soon it was found that many villagers have problems. These people had began to just slurred speech, unsteady gait, and finally died shouting loudly. Hosokawa that the situation was serious, formal report to the Crown. Among patients mostly are fishermen family , August 1956, Minamata Bay, Japan, researchers found that it is pollutants in water, the researchers had pointed that it was caused by Chisso Corporation. This strange disease known as "Minamata strange disease." it caused Minamata offshore fish and shellfish market value plummeted, Minamata residents is poor, and they eat a lot of toxic fish and shellfish, it expanded disaster . Three are 40,000 inhabitants in the town, it is about 10,000 people which is suffering from such symptoms in varying degrees. On 1957 Minamata disease had set up a Family Support.

In 1959, Kumamoto University School of Medicine class of Minamata Disease Research report that the pathogen Minamata was caused by Chisso workplaces which had discharged organic mercury,from 1932 to 1966, the several tons of mercury were discharged into Minamata Bay. The end of 1959, the fishermen had begun protested Chisso Corporation. In 1960, the industrial pollution formally “methyl mercury poisoning" disease named as "Minamata disease." However, the new Japanese Chisso fertilizer immediately denied that Chisso Corporation used only the mercury metal and they have not used methylmercury, therefore, it is not a source of Minamata disease. The plants was not stop discharging sewage, and they are try to cover up the truth and obstruct the relevant research, and even .they bribed thugs to deter violence. American photographer Eugene Smith who was employed by Japan's Chisso Corporation he was labeled to disabled. the incident was handled negative. in 1968,Japanese government recognized the relationship between them,but it is to delay ,it has caused disaster expand.

In 1966, the Minamata disease was outreached in Niigata ,it named the "second Minamata disease", Showa Denko which is culprit is still evade responsibility, the people of Niigata's is extremely dissatisfied with the Showa extremely irresponsible attitude , they were fighting demonstrations. the Niigata public official had complained to the court in 1967. After several years of litigation, the court finally made decision in 1971, Showa's lost liability, the victim and Niigata Minamata's victims were forced court to sue Chisso Corporation. In 1973, the court Chisso company must immediately pay the equivalent of $ 32 million in damages who were indeed recognized Minamata disease patients, who can obtain the relevant medical expenses from the new Japanese government and Chisso. Chisso Corporation had lost eight thousand million dollars within two years, as recognized by the government's handling of the disease, it also produce a political question and is involved in critical.

The event was considered was a major industrial disaster. The official identified that the quantity of victims is 12,615 on October 1997, and the 1,246 people have died.

1956, Minamata, Kumamoto Prefecture in Japan around the city (Yatsushiro Sea coast)

1964 Niigata, Japan Agano River basin outside - the river upstream of the discharge of untreated Si acetaldehyde factory of organic mercury compounds has caused the water.

1980's Songhua River in Heilongjiang Province, China - Petro China Jilin Petrochemical Company polluted the rivers, resulting in widespread mercury poisoning of fishermen.

In 1990, South America's Amazon River - when the local gold mining due to the outflow of organic mercury.

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